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A switch placed on the floor and pressed by a musician to do various functions.
An element in the sound of a voice or instrument that does not change frequency as different pitches are sounded. Formants are essentially “fixed” frequencies or resonances that occur as a result of the physical structure of the sound source. These frequencies are what create timbre, that element of sound that creates the specific sound of a guitar, a flute, a male or female voice, etc.
1) One of many different media used to store and reproduce audio, whether in the recording studio or for listening purposes. Examples include currently used physical formats such as vinyl records and compact discs; obsolete formats such as cassette tape, 8-track tape and DAT; analog recording staples such as reel-to-reel multitrack tape; and many different digital audio file formats such as mp3, WAV, WMA, AIFF and others. 2) Format can also describe specific parameters when recording to analog tape, such as number of tracks, width, spacing and order. 3) To prepare a hard drive or memory card for use, usually erasing all existing data in the process.
The number of occurrences of a particular event within a certain amount of time. In audio and acoustics, frequency specifically refers to the number of complete cycles a vibration or waveform makes in a second, measured in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). In sound, frequency determines what we hear as pitch. The longer the wavelength, the fewer the cycles per second, and the lower the pitch.
A method of sound synthesis in which the frequencies generated by one oscillator (the carrier) are altered by the output of one or more additional oscillators (operators) to create a diversity of harmonically rich sounds.
1) The range of frequencies over which an electronic device puts out a useful signal (see also “Bandwidth”). 2) The range of frequencies that can be substantially transmitted or received in relation to a sound source. Each instrument has a certain frequency range in which it can play; the human ear can also hear within a certain frequency range.
The range between high and low frequencies that a component of an audio system can adequately handle, transmit or receive.
In wireless microphone systems, frequency-agile describes the ability of the system to operate on a choice of different RF frequencies within a certain bandwidth. Frequency-agile systems are preferred for live touring and in areas with high concentrations of radio signals (like large cities) because the RF frequency of the device can be changed to avoid interference.
A now out-of-date protocol in which a sync tone is recorded onto a spare track of a multi-track tape recorder to enable electronic devices (mainly drum machines) to perform in sync with the tape. While some older devices still read FSK, an updated protocol (Smart FSK) is now more commonly used. (See also “Smart FSK.”)
(Abbreviated FOH) In live audio settings, the location in a venue opposite the stage, where live audio for the show is controlled and mixed.
(Also called fundamental frequency or first harmonic) The lowest frequency present in the sounding of a note by musical instrument or voice.
1) The amount of increase in audio signal strength, often expressed in dB.
A device that changes the gain of an amplifier or circuit, often a knob (potentiometer) that can be turned. In a mixing console, each channel usually has its own gain control to regulate the gain of the signal coming into the board—not to be confused with the channel “fader,” which regulates the output of an already-amplified signal.
The action of a compressor or limiter in regulating the amplitude of the audio signal.