The opposition to the flow of electrical current by the output circuits of an amplifier (or other device).
The signal level at the output of a device.
The process of recording an additional musical performance over an existing recording, usually on its own track. Overdubbing has become a common recording technique with the advent of multitrack recording, first on multitrack analog tape, and more recently via computers and Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs).
Any harmonic in a tone except the fundamental frequency. (See also “Partial.”)
1) A device or circuit that attenuates an incoming signal, usually to prevent overload of an amplifier that follows along the signal path. (Also sometimes called “Attenuator pad.”) 2) A device with a surface that can be hit by a drum stick; hitting the pad produces an output signal pulse (or MIDI command) that causes a drum machine or synthesizer to sound a drum sound. 3) A type of synthesizer patch/program used to create sustained background or atmospheric sounds.
The process of “placing” a particular sound within the stereo field. This is accomplished by controlling the balance of the signal between the left and right speakers so the ear hears the sound as coming from a particular point in the sonic space between left and right. This sonic space is sometimes called the “stereo panorama,” from which the word “panning” is derived. In surround sound, panning occurs in a 360° sound space, not just left-right.
Short for “Panoramic Potentiometer,” a panpot is a knob in the channel strip that controls the panning of the audio signal in the stereo (or surround) space by controlling how much of the signal is sent to each speaker or channel.
Several jacks that are wired so that each connection is wired to the corresponding connection of other jacks.
A connector that is able to transmit and receive digital data at the same time though different pins.
Each characteristic of a sound, signal or device that is possible to change.
An equalizer in which all parameters of equalization can be adjusted to any amount, including the center frequency, the amount of boost or cut, and the bandwidth.
1) Another word for overtone. 2) One of a number of sine waves that makes up a complex sound, helping to define the timbre. This concept is a key part of creating sounds in synthesizers: in additive synthesis, a number of partials are combined to create a certain tone.
The frequency range of signals that will be “passed” by a filter, rather than reduced.
A component that does not generate or control electrical current (as opposed to an “Active Device”). In audio applications, this usually refers to a piece of gear that does not include an amplifier as part of its design. For example, active speakers are self-powered, while passive speakers require an external amplifier in order to reproduce sound. (See also “Active Device.”)
1) To route or reroute the signal in an audio system (such as a console) by using short cables with plugs inserted into jacks. 2) A sound setting or program on a synthesizer.